VinoCalc
by Jonathan Musther  -  jon@musther.net
Version 3.2 - December 2016
 Calculators: Gravity/Density/Sugar Conversions Temperature Conversion Volume Conversion Mass Conversion Area Conversion Alcohol Prediction (pre-ferment) Alcohol by Ebulliometry Alcohol by Spirit Indication Alcohol from Hydrometer & Refractometer Monitor Ferment from Refractometer Readings Monitor Ferment from Hydrometer Readings Measure High (off-scale) °Brix by Dilution Hydrometer Temperature Correction SO2 Aspiration/Oxidation Method Calculate Molecular SO2 Titratable Acidity Calculate Dissolved Solids (post ferment) Simple Deacidification Double Salt Deacidification Chaptalisation Additions Dilution (water addition) Fortification Point Fortification (spirit addition) Fining Trial Based Additions Solid Additions Percentage-Active Solid Additions Solution Additions Discussion of Calculations Legal (copyright, distribution etc.)

Gravity/Density/Sugar Conversions:
 Specific Gravity °Brix Oechsle Baume Babo/KMW Density (g/L) Potential alcohol (%v/v) Dissolved sugar (g/L)
Details:  Conversion between various units of density.  Some conversions are not perfect, for example specific gravity and °Brix do not measure the same physical property, and are often measured using different instruments.  Some of these conversion are therefore based on expressions derived from polynomial fits to experimental data sets.
Potential alcohol is not a measure of density, but it is useful.  This calculation is an approximation, for more detailed alcohol prediction see the alcohol prediction calculator.
Dissolved Sugar is not a measure of density, but is useful.  This is an estimate of dissolved solids assuming that most of the solids are sucrose - it will be close to the true value.

Temperature Conversions:
 °C °F
Details:  A simple conversion between °F and °C and visa versa.

Volume Conversions:
 Litres US gallons Gallons
Details:  This calcaultor converts between commonly used volume measurements.

Mass Conversions:
 Kilograms Tonnes Pounds Tons
Details:  This calcaultor converts between commonly used mass measurements.

Area Conversions:
 Hectares Acres
Details:  This calcaultor converts between the commonly used measurements of vineyard area.

1 hectare (or square hectometre) = 10,000 square metres (a square 100m by 100m)

Alcohol by Ebulliometry:
 Calibration - pure water (°C) Reading (°C) Alcohol (%v/v)
Details:  This calculation corrects the ebulliometer reading based on the calibration reading, and then calculates the alcohol content.

Alcohol Prediction (pre-ferment):
 Current reading Reading in? °BrixSG Estimated finishing SG Correction for DSOS Potential alcohol (%v/v)
DSOS = Dissolved Solids Other than Sugar

Details:  This calculation is based on the method proposed by Duncan and Acton (Progressive Winemaking).  The calculation is based on the initial and final gravity.  The correction for DSOS is the the assumed gravity contribution from Dissolved Solids Other than Sugar.  The correction for DSOS is hard to judge, but a suggestion is to use pre-ferment figures from wines for which you know the final alcohol, and tweak the DSOS until the calculation gives the correct value, then use the calculator for making predictions for similar musts (variety, region, condition etc).

Alcohol by Spirit Indication:
 Hydrometer calibration temp (°C) Initial reading Initial temp (°C) Final reading Final temp (°C) Alcohol (%v/v)
Details:  This calculator will calculate alcohol by volume from the spirit indication procedure.  This procedure involves taking a sample of known volume and making a hydrometer reading.  The sample is then boiled until it is reduced to about half its initial volume, topped up to the initial volume again with distilled water (or any water giving a hydrometer reading of 0.000), and a final reading is taken.
This calculator includes hydrometer temperature correction so it is not essential to ensure the initial and final readings are made at the same temperature, however the temperatures, and calibration temperature of the hydrometer must be known.

Note:  This procedure, if performed carefully, will provide accurate results in wines regardless of residual sugar.

Alcohol from Hydrometer & Refractometer:
 Specific Gravity °Brix (refractometer) Alcohol (%v/v)
Details:  This calculator uses a refractometer and hydrometer reading to ascertain the alcohol content of the sample.  The gravity measurement must be from a hydrometer, and the °Brix measurement must be from a refractometer, these values must not have been calculated from one source.
Alcohol (ethanol) has a higher refractive index than water, so a dry wine will usually give a refractometer reading in the range 5 to 15°Brix.

Monitor Ferment Progress with a Refractometer:
 Initial °Brix (refractometer) Current °Brix (refractometer) Initial Gravity Current Gravity (SG) Current Gravity (°Brix hydrometer) True °Brix Residual Sugar (g/L) Current alcohol (%v/v)
Details:  Monitor the progress of a ferment without having to take large samples and use a hydrometer, simply take a small refractometer sample. Entering the initial °Brix reading (pre-ferment) and the current reading will give is all that is required.

Important:  There are a lot of approximations involved in this calculator.  While this method is extremely useful for monitoring ferments, and on the whole quite accurate, it is not perfect - for example, do not expect it to show a true °Brix of exactly zero when the fermentation has finished.

Monitor Ferment Progress using Hydrometer:
 Initial °Brix (hydrometer) Current °Brix (hydrometer) True °Brix Residual Sugar (g/L) Current alcohol (%v/v)
Details:  This calculator allows you to correct for the obscuration effect of the alcohol produced during fermentation, and calculate a true sugar concentration.

Measure High (off-scale) °Brix by Dilution:
 Dilution (%v/v of juice) °Brix reading (of dilution) Actual °Brix
Details:  A sample of high sugar juice can be diluted in order that it can be read on equipment with a limited scale.  However because the °Brix scale is calibrated as %w/w, but the dilution is carried out by measuring volume, the reading cannot simply be multiplied by the dilution to obtain the °Brix of the juice.  This calculator corrects for this, allowing such dilutions to be used.

Note on SG:  If measuring a juice using SG (specific gravity), simple multiplication is possible. For example, a sample diluted to 50% with distilled water, which reads 1.090, has a gravity of 1.180.

Hydrometer Temperature Correction:
Details:  The density of water changes predictably with temperature and so it is possible (and important) to correct readings taken at temperatures the hydrometer is not calibrated for.  Most hydrometers are calibrated to 20°C, but some are calibrated to 15°C - any good hydrometer will have the calibration temperature marked.
This calculator, when working with a hydrometer calibrated to 20°C, is accurate over the approximate range 0-60°C, and when calibrated to 15°C, approximately 0-55°C.

SO2 Aspiration/Oxidation Calculation:
 Molarity of NaOH Titre of NaOH (mL) Sample volume (mL) SO2 (mg/L)
Details:  This is a simple calculation of SO2 for the aspiration/oxidation method.  Whether free, bound or total SO2 is calculated depends on the method you used.

Red Wines:  Much of the 'free' SO2 in red wines is actually pigment (anthocyanin) bound - actual free SO2 levels will be very significantly lower.

Calculate Molecular SO2:
 Free SO2 (mg/L) Wine pH Current molecular SO2 (mg/L) Desired molecular SO2 (mg/L) Required free SO2 (mg/L)
Details:  This calculator will calculate the level of molecular SO2 in a wine based on its pH and measured free SO2 (the proportion of the measured free SO2 which is in the molecular form is dependant on pH).  The required level of molecular SO2 for antimicrobial protection is often given as 0.8mg/L, although sometimes up to 1.5mg/L (Wine Science - Ronald S. Jackson - 2008).

Red Wines:  In red wines, most of the 'free' SO2 is actually pigment (anthocyanin) bound, and is released by acidification of the sample prior to measurement.  Due to this, it is not currently possible to ascertain the level of molecular SO2 in red wines.  Red wines are however, generally far more microbially stable than whites, and thus are typically maintained at lower levels of 'free' SO2.  In summary, maintaining high molecular SO2 in red wines is difficult and ill advised - do not use this calculator as a guide for red wines.

Titratable Acidity:
 Molarity of NaOH Titre of NaOH (mL) Sample volume (mL) TA (equiv. tartaric g/L)
Details:  This is a simple calculation of TA from a titration with NaOH.

Dissolved Solids:
 Specific Gravity °Brix (refractometer) Dissolved solids (g/L)
Details:  This calculation is based on the alcohol calculation from refractometer and hydrometer readings.  The alcohol is calculated and then used together with the specific gravity to calculate the dissolved solids.  The gravity measurement must be from a hydrometer, and the °Brix measurement must be from a refractometer, these values must not have been calculated from one source.
Alcohol has a higher refractive index than water, so a dry wine will give a refractometer reading in the range 5 to 10°Brix.

Simple Deacidification:
 Current TA (g/L equiv. tartaric) Target TA (g/L equiv. tartaric) Volume of wine (L) Deacidification agent calcium carbonate potassium carbonate potassium bicarbonate Mass of agent to use (kg)
Details:  This calculation is for simple deacidification using different agents:

Calcium carbonate - CaCO3
Potassium carbonate - K2CO3
Potassium bicarbonate - KHCO3

Note:  Potassium salts are known to cause greater deacidification than this calculation predicts due to the potassium ions driving formation of potassium bitartrate.  While this effect is small, it can be significant, and cannot be reliably predicted.  Full realisation of the potassium bitartrate related component of deacidification may take some considerable time.

Tip:  If you are treating a small volume, enter 1000 times the volume you have and the output will be in grams.  For example, to deacidify 15 litres, type 15000 and the mass output will be in grams.

Double Salt Deacidification:
 Current TA (g/L equiv. tartaric) Target TA (g/L equiv. tartaric) Volume of wine/juice (L) Minimum volume to treat* (L) Recommended volume to treat* (L) Mass of calcium carbonate** (kg)
Details:  This calculator calculates the volume of wine to treat, and the mass of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) required to treat it for double salt deacidification.

* The minimum volume to treat is the technically smallest volume of wine which needs to be completely deacidified.  Allowing slightly more wine than this is the normal practice, as it ensures that the required deacidification is completed.  The recommended volume to treat is simply 5% greater than the minimum, and is roughly in accordance with the volumes provided by the makers of Acidex®.

** Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is the deacidification agent.  Brand name agents such as Acidex® consist almost entirely of calcium carbonate, but are seeded with crystals of the double salt, calcium malate-tartrate, designed to encourage precipitation of this salt.  The mass calculated here can be used in either case.

Tip:  If you are treating a small volume, enter 1000 times the volume you have and the output will be in grams.  For example, to deacidify 15 litres, type 15000 and the mass output will be in grams.

Chaptalisation:
 Current Desired Units? °BrixSpecific Gravity Estimated finishing SG Correction for DSOS Potential alcohol (current) Potential alcohol (chaptalised) Volume of must (L) Mass of sugar to add (kg)
DSOS: = Dissolved Solids Other than Sugar - note that if your density reading is from a hydrometer, using a value for DSOS is more important, if the reading is from a refractometer, you can probably assume no DSOS.

Details:  This calculator works out how much sugar to add to a given volume of wine to raise it to a desired density (which we use as a measure of sugar content).  For convenience it also calculates the estimated potential alcohol of the current must, and after the calculated chaptalisation.  The estimated finishing gravity and correction for DSOS can be ignored if alcohol prediction is not required.

 Current Desired Volume of wine/must Water volume
Details:  This is a simple dilution calculator for water additions based on reducing the concentration of sugar, alcohol, acid etc.  A common application is reducing the sugar concentration to reduce the eventual alcohol:  In this case 'Current' is the estimated alcohol resulting from the present sugar concentration, and 'Desired' is the desired alcohol concentration.  The calculator can be used similarly for any chosen concentration.

Fortification Point:
 Initial must °Brix Desired alcohol (%v/v) Spirit alcohol (%v/v) Volume of wine Desired °Brix in finished wine Alcohol produced by fermentation (%v/v) Fortify when hydrometer reads (°Brix) Volume of spirit to add
Details:  This calculator calculates the point of fortification for making fortified wines with residual grape-sugar (e.g. Port).  It accounts for both the obscuration of sugar, by the alcohol produced during fermentation, and the dilution of the residual sugar, during fortification.

 Current alcohol (%v/v) Desired alcohol (%v/v) Spirit alcohol (%v/v) Volume of wine Volume of spirit to add
Details:  This calculator works in the same way as a traditional Pearson's square.  It is used to give the volume of spirit (of known alcohol content) to add to a volume of wine wine (of known alcohol content), to bring it to a desired alcohol content.

 Concentration of fining used in trial (mg/L) Volume of wine used in trial (mL) Volume of fining solution used (mL) Concentration of fining for addition (mg/L) Volume of wine to fine (L) Concentration of fining in wine (mg/L) Volume of fining solution to add to wine (mL)
Details:  This calculator makes fining trial and subsequent fining addition calculations quick and simple.  After performing fining trials and deciding on an addition level, fill in all details and the volume of fining agent required will be calculated.
Be sure to check all units, the ones used here have been chosen for convenience in the majority of situations.

 Desired concentration (mg/L) Volume of wine/juice (L) Mass of additive required (g)
Details:  A very simple calculator to calculate the mass of a solid additive required to reach a specific concentration given a volume of juice/wine.

 Percentage active (%) Desired concentration (mg/L) Volume of wine/juice (L) Mass of additive required (g)
DAP = about 21% YAN (Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen)
PMS = 57% SO2 by mass

Details:  This calculator is for use with solids of which only a certain percentage is active.  From the percentage, the desired addition level, and the volume of the juice/wine, the calculator will provide the mass of solid to add.

 Concentration of additive solution (mg/L) Desired concentration in wine (mg/L) Volume of wine/juice (L) Volume of additive required (mL)
Details:  This calculator will calculate exactly how much of a solution of a given concentration to add to a given volume of juice/wine, to reach a desired concentration of the solute.  For example, a solution of concentration 500mg/L is to be added to 100L of wine to give the wine a concentration of 10mg/L.  